Scale is the solid chalky buildups inside of pipes, boilers, tanks and kettles and it is because of hard water. Hard water is found in places with rich deposits of minerals underground. As water seep into the ground it carries the minerals such as calcium and magnesium with it. Scale buildups are primarily made of these two mineral contaminants. A scale filter is used to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium deposit inside pipes, tanks and other water storage and delivery components.
Calcium and magnesium are contaminants that are non-threatening to health. However, the scale buildup caused by these two minerals can be quite problematic in the industrial setting. Scale buildup inside a heating pipe limits both liquid flow through the pipe and ability to transfer heat from the liquid to the outer pipe shell. In effect, the overall thermal efficiency of the pipe when used as a heat exchanger is reduced.
Pipe bursts and leaks are other problems caused by scale buildup. The scale effectively reduces the inner diameter of the pipe and limits the amount of water that can flow through it. This causes increased pressure in the entire plumbing. The pressure can lead to leaks or bursting pipes.
The deposit can break off into pieces. These broken off pieces can get carried to other parts of the equipment where it can interfere with water flow or get pinched in moving components which can lead to equipment failure.
Any task that involves using of detergent is affected by hard water. The minerals in hard water make it difficult for detergent to lather. That means more detergent is needed which increases the cost of operation.